The band stand was a simple construction that not only created an ornamental focal point, but also served acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. Rapid growth and prosperity meant that fewer women had to find paid employment, and even when the husband owned a shop or small business, the wife's participation was less necessary. Nonconformists especially Unitarians and Presbyterians played major roles in founding new universities in the late 19th century at Manchester , as well as Birmingham , Liverpool and Leeds. Economy, industry and trade Further information: The educational system was mediocre; the main universities outside Scotland were likewise mediocre. The two ancient universities opposed giving a charter to the new University of London in the s because it had no such restriction. The canal companies, unable or unwilling to upgrade their facilities to compete with railways, used political power to try to stop them. Her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne , but within two years he had resigned, and the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
Many problems were encountered but the sewers were completed. The result was a merging of the two groups, strengthening their great weight as a political pressure group. Industrial revolution and Second industrial revolution The most obvious and the most distinctive feature of the History of Civilisation, during the last fifty years [—87], is the wonderful increase of industrial production by the application of machinery, the improvement of old technical processes and the invention of new ones, accompanied by an even more remarkable development of old and new means of locomotion and intercommunication — Thomas Henry Huxley  Progress Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era — as Britain's "Golden Years". In an age when hygiene was largely optional and bathing every day was in the domain of obsessive-compulsives, some kind of stink-control mechanism was sorely needed, and that mechanism was an elaborate social etiquette governing the exact protocol for when and where to cover up the stank. The university, nevertheless, was established in , and by the s Oxford dropped its restrictions. People back then probably got arrested at the beach for showing their knees, right? On its conclusion in with the Treaty of Paris , Russia was prohibited from hosting a military presence in the Crimea. They instead concentrated on the argument that it was not necessary to believe in God in order to behave in moral fashion. However, a few early feminists called for aspirations beyond the home. Definitions according to a distinct sensibility or politics have also created scepticisim about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have equally been defences of it as a marker of time. By , hand-held cameras were available. Population The Victorian era was a time of unprecedented population growth in Britain. The financing of railways became an important specialty of London's financiers. The reason is simple: There was greater movement, and less of the fatalism of an earlier age. The new railways all allowed goods, raw materials, and people to be moved about, rapidly facilitating trade and industry. Travelling circuses, like Pablo Fanque 's, dominated the British provinces, Scotland, and Ireland Fanque would enjoy fame again in the 20th century when John Lennon would buy an poster advertising his circus and adapt the lyrics for The Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr. The Chartist movement peaked as a democratic movement among the working class in ; its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions and cooperative societies. Extended families were less common, as the nuclear family became both the ideal and the reality. The public conscience was more instructed, and the content of liberty was being widened to include something more than freedom from political constraint During the same period, London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and a gas network for lighting and heating was introduced in the s. In , the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation, disease and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration;  To allow more cheap food into Ireland, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws. The home became a refuge from the harsh world,; middle-class wives sheltered their husbands from the tedium of domestic affairs. Victorian literature In prose , the novel rose from a position of relative neglect during the s to become the leading literary genre by the end of the era. This is especially the case when the picture is of men posing in the presence of ladies. They could not hold most public offices, they had to pay local taxes to the Anglican church, be married by Anglican ministers, and be denied attendance at Oxford or degrees at Cambridge.
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